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  •  Title: Fundamentele waarden in het recht trans
Author:  Thomassen, W.M.E.
  •  Title: Economische, Sociale en Culturele Rechten: een selectieve bibliografie trans
Author:  Coomans, A.P.M,
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: The Role of the Perpetrator and the Bystander in Human Rights Violations trans
Author:  Grünfeld, F.- A.L. Smeulers
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Social rights and the rule of law trans
Author:  Heringa, A.W, The Social Charter of the 21ste Century: colloguy organised by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe : Human Rights Building, 14 - 16 May, 1997
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Evaluatie Embryowet trans
Author:  Olsthoorn-Heim, E.T.M.; Wert de, G.M.W.R.; Winter, H.B.; Braake te, Th.A.M.; Heineman, M.J.; Middelkamp, A.; Nierse, C.J.
Description:  Gepubliceerd in: ZonMw, januari 2006, Reeks evaluatie regelgeving: deel 20. - De Embryowet – op 1 september 2002 in werking getreden – stelt grenzen aan handelingen met geslachtscellen en embryo’s door te verbieden wat ontoelaatbaar wordt geacht en andere handelingen aan voorwaarden te binden. De wetgever heeft getracht een evenwicht te vinden tussen respect voor de menselijke waardigheid en het menselijk leven en andere waarden, zoals de genezing van zieken of de bevordering van hun gezondheid en het welzijn van onvruchtbare paren en het toekomstige kind. Uit respect voor het menselijk leven stelt de wet voorwaarden en grenzen aan het gebruik van geslachtscellen en embryo’s en beperkt de wet de doeleinden waarvoor deze mogen worden gebruikt. Uitgangspunt is dat de meeste groepen in de samenleving zich in de gemaakte afwegingen moeten kunnen vinden en dat de keuzes een zekere bestendigheid hebben bij voortschrijding van de medische mogelijkheden. Gekozen is voor een systeem van normering, formulering van rechten en afbakening van verantwoordelijkheden enerzijds en protocollering, verslaglegging en rapportage anderzijds. De wet bevat de constructie dat het verbod om een embryo speciaal tot stand te brengen en te gebruiken voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek en andere doeleinden dan het bewerkstelligen van een zwangerschap, vervalt op een bij koninklijk besluit te bepalen tijdstip. De voordracht voor dit besluit wordt gedaan binnen vijf jaar na de inwerkingtreding van de wet. Nederland heeft rekening te houden met het Verdrag inzake de rechten van de mens en de biogeneeskunde (VRMB). De belangrijkste bepaling in verband met de Embryowet verplicht een verdragstaat het embryo voldoende bescherming te bieden indien de wet het doen van onderzoek met embryo’s toelaat. Dit verdrag, dat ook enkele relevante additionele protocollen kent, is door Nederland ondertekend maar nog niet geratificeerd.
  •  Title: Legitimacy of European Court of Human Rights Judgments: Procedural asp trans
Author:  Barkhuysen, T., Emmerik, M.L. van
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
  •  Title: Loopholes, Risks and Ambivalences in International Lawmaking trans
Author:  Genugten, W.J.M. van, Gestel, R.A.J. van, Groenhuijsen, M.S., & Letschert, R.M.
Source:  Universiteit van Tilburg
Published in:  Recent Advances in Victimology (pp. 1-79)
Year:  2009
  •  Title: Human rights law as a site of struggle over multicultural conflicts trans
Author:  Titia Loenen, Wibo van Rossum & Jet Tigchelaar*
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2010
  •  Title: CEDAW, the Bible and the State of the Netherlands: the struggle over orthodox women’s political participation and their responses trans
Author:  Barbara M. Oomen, Joost Guijt, Matthias Ploeg
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Abstract:  The case of the SGP essentially concerned the question whether the Netherlands should take measures against a Bible-based political party that bars women from its list of candidates. Against the theoretical background of human rights sociology, the rise of rights as a framework for moral discussions and the role of NGOs in rights implementation, this article assesses how ‘rights talk’, in particular based upon the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), became the language in which the discussion over orthodox women’s political rights came to be framed in the Netherlands. It makes use of extensive quantitative and qualitative data to assess how this particular form of rights realization – via court cases lodged by outside NGOs – impacted upon discussions within the communities concerned, particularly amongst the women themselves. It argues that this particular form of rights realization can also have undesired effects, such as reinforcing more conservative positions and strengthening a general sense of isolation from society and relates these findings to more general discussions on ‘talking rights’ in a context of religious diversity.
  •  Title: Sex segregation and equality in a multicultural society: inferiority as a standard for legal acceptability trans
Author:  Marjolein van den Brink, Titia Loenen & Jet Tigchelaar
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Abstract:  Sex segregation and equality in a multicultural society: inferiority as a standard for legal acceptability Marjolein van den Brink, Assistant Professor of Legal Theory/Gender & Law at the Institute of Legal Theory, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht (the Netherlands) Titia Loenen, Professor of Legal Theory/Gender & Law at the Institute of Legal Theory, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht (the Netherlands) Jet Tigchelaar, Assistant Professor of the Philosophy of Law at the Institute of Legal Theory, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht (the Netherlands) Abstract This contribution explores the legal acceptability of old and new forms of sex segregation, using a multilayered ‘inferiority test’ that can be regarded as a specification of (inter)national equality and non-discrimination standards. The test is applied to a number of topical cases of sex segregation: 1) A traditional case of rather uncontested sex segregation in sports, specifically in amateur football; 2) A more controversial case that seems to be on the rise once again: sex-segregated education; 3) The highly controversial case of sex-segregated integration courses in the Netherlands. The outcome shows that each sex-segregated practice is problematic in the light of one or more criteria of this inferiority test, but not necessarily the same criteria. Specific attention is paid to the merits of the test in a multicultural context. The inferiority test is a useful tool in dealing with multicultural complexity, although not in every respect. It allows the impact of sex segregation on minority women to be taken into account, as well as cultural and religious reasons which women may have in demanding sex-segregation facilities, unless this will result in perpetuating their or other women’s subordination. Our findings suggest that the inferiority test is quite useful as an analytical tool to assess contested practices of sex segregation. However, the multilayered character of the test needs some fine-tuning when the various elements of the test lead to different conclusions.
  •  Title: A closer look at law: human rights as multi-level sites of struggles over multi-dimensional equality trans
Author:  Susanne Baer
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Abstract:  Conflicts in human rights today are often conflicts around religion and equality. They focus on headscarves, swimming lessons or prayer during school. To understand them better, we need to resist the temptation to reduce them to cases or clashes between a determinate set of rights. Rather, we need to understand the political agendas set, including the culturalization of religion and the othering of sex equality, and we need to analyse such conflicts in contexts of contested secularism, as an occurrence in a world of multi-level (and thus also contested) regulation and as a problem of multiple inequalities. To solve them, this paper suggests relying on a triangle of fundamental human rights, with substantive equality and interrelated liberty as well as dignity.
  •  Title: Legal Protection Against Violations of the European Convention on Human Rights: Improving (Co-)operation of Strasbourg and Domestic Institutions trans
Author:  Emmerik, M.L. van Barkhuysen, T.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  Leiden Journal of International Law
Year:  1999
  •  Title: Werken in de marge trans
Author:  Staring R.H.J.M. Aarts J.
Source:  Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Year:  2010
Description:  A large number of former unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands leave for unknown destinations during the asylum procedure or after being rejected. In this contribution the authors provide answers to the question how undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors provide for their iving and housing. The study is based on interviews with 118 former undocumented unaccompanied minors who were recruited through the personal networks of the researchers and through contacts with representatives of (private) organizations who support the youngsters. The undocumented minors are excluded from formal employment as well as provisions of the welfare state. By far the largest group of the undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors has never been involved in criminal activities and only one third of them work in the informal economy. The sectors in which these youngsters perform informal work vary from cleaning and construction to catering and personal services. The work is characterized by uncertain working hours. There are often few hours available and the work often takes place on call. The pay is meagre and few respondents can survive exclusively on their earnings. The undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors are mainly supported by friends and private organizations for their living and housing. It is because of this support that the youngsters do not roam the streets and can continue their illegal stay in the Netherlands. The strong orientation of the youngsters towards a lawful residence in the Netherlands causes them to fear the risks of arrest while working, so they rather settle for the limited support of private organizations and friends. The support of private organizations and the focus of the youngsters towards a lawful stay thus constitute a buffer against exploitation.
  •  Title: Vroegtijdig optreden van omstanders ter voorkoming van oorlogen en schendingen van de Rechten van de mens trans
Author:  Grünfeld, Frederik.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Een bijzonder gezin. De Europese Commissie voor Bescherming van de Rechten van de Mens en homoseksuele relaties trans
Author:  Rhee, C.H. van
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Kindermishandeling en de rechten van het kind: van transisme naar Trias pedagogica trans
Author:  Willems, Jan C. M.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: The Children's Law of Nations: the International Rights of the Child in the Trias Pedagogica trans
Author:  Willems, Jan.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Towards a Permanent International Claims Commission for Victims of International Humanitarian Law trans
Author:  Kamminga, Menno T.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Een kinderrechtelijke aanpak van kindermishandeling in plaats van abortus onder dwang trans
Author:  Willems, Jan.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Staat dient op te treden tegen 'pedopartij' : pedofilie, democratie, transisme en het belang van het kind trans
Author:  Willems, Jan,
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van het Kind: waarom VRK goed is en IVRK (eigenlijk) fout trans
Author:  Willems, Jan,
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: A new era in human rights protection in the European community: the implications the United Nations' Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities for the European community trans
Author:  Waddington, Lisa.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Over nationale grenzen heen trans
Author:  Coomans, Fons.
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Rechtsherstel bij schending van het EVRM in Nederland en Straatsburg trans
Author:  Barkhuysen, T., Emmerik, M.L. van
Description:  Wanneer een schending van het EVRM wordt geconstateerd doet zich de vraag voor of en zo ja, in hoeverre rechtsherstel moet dan weI kan worden geboden. Daarbij gaat het vaak om schadevergoeding, maar ook om andere maatregelen zoals, bijvoorbeeld, het alsnog verstrekken van een vergunning. In deze bijdrage wordt ingegaan op de actuele praktijk terzake van rechtsherstel bij schending van het EVRM. Gekeken wordt naar zowel depraktijk in Straatsburg als die ophetnationale niveau. Bijzondere aandacht gaat uit naar de mogelijkheden om samenwerking tussen de Straatsburgse en de nationale autoriteiten te verbeteren, om zo te komen tot een zo effectief mogelijk systeem van rechtsherstel.
  •  Title: Judical Deliberations in the European Court of Human Rights trans
Author:  Gerards, J.H.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Description:  T.M.C. Asser Press
  •  Title: Afrika en de rechten van de mens trans
Author:  Schrijver, N.J.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken
Year:  2008
  •  Title: Hoe Osama Bin Laden het Verenigd Koninkrijk een noodtoestand bezorgde (I). Enkele aspecten van het spanningsveld tussen terrorismebestrijding en mensenrechtenbescherming trans
Author:  Loof, J.P.
  •  Title: The Changing Nature of the Freedom of Speech trans
Author:  Cliteur, P.B.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Year:  2009
  •  Title: Human Dignity and Uniform Law: An Unhappy Relationship trans
Author:  Jan M. Smits
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
Published in:  ESSAYS IN HONOR OF SAUL LITVINOFF, Olivier Moréteau, Julio Romanach, Alberto Zuppi, eds., pp. 749-760, Baton Rouge, 2008
Description:  This contribution argues that there is no "transnational" concept of human dignity or of public policy. These concepts are essentially local and we should not try to harmonize them by drafting common principles or rules. To substantiate this thesis, the inquiry into the harmonizing effect of human dignity and public policy takes place at four different levels. First, two instruments in the field of international contract law (the PECL and the Unidroit Principles) are considered. Second, some case law of the European Court of Justice (notable the Omega case) is looked at. A third level of inquiry concerns a representative case of the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations (the Wackenheim case). The fourth level of analysis is whether a uniform interpretation of human dignity is likely at the national level. In the absence of one uniform concept of human dignity, one should stop claiming that it could form a barrier against the negative effects of globalization.
  •  Title: Het EHRM en de 'waarlijk democratische regeringsvorm' trans
Author:  Napel, H.M.Th.D. ten
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
  •  Title: Mesures de procédure spéciales et respect des droits de l'homme trans
Author:  John A.E. Vervaele
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2009
Description:  Rapport général
Abstract:  Le but du rapport général est de mener une analyse comparative des rapports nationaux en vue de présenter les processus de transformation des systèmes de justice pénale internes, en particulier du procès pénal, étant donné que des mesures procédurales spéciales sont introduites pour appréhender le terrorisme et la criminalité organisée, et de voir si cela a conduit les pays à se départir de leur propres règles fondamentales, procédures, principes et standards des droits de l’homme applicables. Partant de la prémisse qu’un système intégré de droit pénal a trois dimensions – la protection des individus (la dimension de bouclier), la mise à disposition d’instruments d’application de la loi (la dimension d’épée) et les contrôles et équilibres c’est-à-dire la séparation des pouvoirs (la dimension constitutionnelle) – le rapport fournit un aperçu d’ensemble des transformations corrélées, surtout dans la procédure d’enquête préliminaire, qui les ont affectées toutes les trois dans trois vagues de « guerre » (contre la drogue, le crime organisé et le terrorisme). Dans beaucoup de pays, les garanties procédurales et les principes qui protègent contre la violation du droit à un procès équitable sont considérés comme un fardeau du point de vue de l’efficacité de l’application de la loi à la criminalité grave. Ces réformes se sont traduites par une claire extension de l’état répressif et un estompement des distinctions classiques, et ne favorisent pas la primauté du droit. La focalisation sur la sécurité publique et les investigations contraignantes préventives sapent le système de justice pénale. Avec l’usage croissant du système de justice criminelle comme instrument de régulation du présent et/ou de l’avenir plutôt que de sanction d’un comportement passé, et un procès pénal dans lequel l’enquête préliminaire ne concerne pas la recherche de la vérité relative au crime commis mais concerne la construction et la déconstruction de la dangerosité sociale, on peut dire que les intérêts de la sécurité nationale prévalent sur la justice et menacent le procès équitable et la protection des droits de l’homme – malgré que les principes généraux de procédure pénale semblent être devenus plus importants dans les pays pour lesquels on dispose d’un rapport, même quand il s’agit de criminalité organisée et de terrorisme, et sont considérés comme conformes aux standards constitutionnels et des droits de l’homme.
  •  Title: The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: a Comment on the Tablada Case trans
Author:  Zegveld, L
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Year:  1998
  •  Title: Medidas procesales especiales y proteccíon de los derechos humanos trans
Author:  John A.E. Vervaele
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2009
Description:  Informe general
Abstract:  El objetivo del informe general es realizar un análisis comparativo de los informes nacionales para evidenciar los procesos de transformación de los sistemas nacionales de justicia penal, en particular del proceso penal, en el que se han introducido medidas procesales especiales para hacer frente al terrorismo y al crimen organizado, y determinar si esto ha llevado a los países a apartarse de sus propias normas fundamentales, procedimientos, principios y estándares de derechos humanos aplicables. Partiendo de la premisa de que el sistema integrado de derecho penal tiene tres dimensiones – la protección de las personas (la dimensión de escudo), la disposición de instrumentos de aplicación de la ley (la dimensión de la espada) y de pesos y contrapesos / trias politica (la dimensión constitucional) – el informe ofrece un panorama general de las transformaciones relacionadas entre sí, principalmente en la fase previa al juicio, que han afectado a tales dimensiones como consecuencia de tres oleadas de ‘guerras’ (contra las drogas, el crimen organizado y el terrorismo). En muchos países, las garantías procesales y los principios que protegen frente a violaciones del derecho a un juicio justo son considerados una carga para la eficacia de la persecución de los delitos graves. Estas reformas han dado lugar a una clara expansión del estado punitivo y a que queden difuminadas las distinciones clásicas, y no favorecen al estado de derecho. El actuar centrado en la seguridad pública y en la investigación coactiva preventiva socava el sistema de justicia penal. Con un sistema de justicia penal utilizado crecientemente como instrumento para regular el presente y/o el futuro en lugar de para castigar el comportamiento pasado, y un proceso penal en el que la investigación previa al juicio no se dirige a conocer la verdad en relación con el delito cometido, sino a la construcción y de-construcción de la peligrosidad social, los intereses de la seguridad nacional puede decirse que prevalecen sobre la justicia y pueden constituir una amenaza para el debido proceso y la protección de los derechos humanos – a pesar de que los principios generales del procedimiento penal parecen haber adquirido mayor importancia en los países que presentaron informes, también cuando se trata del crimen organizado y el terrorismo, y están diseñados para ajustarse a la Constitución y las normas de derechos humanos.
  •  Title: Remedies for Victims of Violations of International Humanitarian Law trans
Author:  Zegveld, L.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Year:  2003
  •  Title: Developments in the protection of fundamental human rights in criminal process trans
Author:  Stefan Trechsel
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2009
Description:  Epilogue
  •  Title: Domestic courts and international human rights law. The ongoing judicial conversation trans
Author:  Michael Kirby
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2010
Description:  Hondius Lecture, delivered by the Hon Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG in Utrecht on 26 October 2008
  •  Title: Overview of Forms of Joint Legal Parenting Available to Same-Sex Couples in European Countries trans
Author:  Waaldijk, C.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  Droit et Société
Year:  2009
Description:  Overview of possibilities for same-sex couples for joint parental authority, second-parent adoption, joint adoption, and (semi-)automatic joint maternity, in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Situation as of 1 September 2009. Published in English in the French journal 'Droit et Sociéte' (special issue 'Des enjeux du droit de la filiation').
  •  Title: Zijn de mensenrechten nog steeds de harde kern van de moderniteit? trans
Author:  Cliteur, P.B.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  Civis Mundi
Year:  2009
  •  Title: K.U. t. Finland - beschermen van minderjarigen op Internet trans
Author:  Groothuis, M.M.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  NJCM-Bulletin
Year:  2009
Abstract:  In Finland heeft een onbekende persoon een aantal gegevens over een kind, waaronder een beschrijving van zijn fysieke kenmerken, zonder toestemming op een dating-site op internet geplaatst. Het kind klaagt onder artikel 8 EVRM. Naar het oordeel van het Hof had de Finse wetgever een beoordelingskader tot stand moeten brengen waarbij een evenwicht had moeten worden gevonden tussen enerzijds het belang van vertrouwelijkheid van dienstverlening op internet en anderzijds het voorkomen van misdrijven. De Finse Wet op de vrijheid van meningsuiting in de massamedia bevat weliswaar een zodanig beoordelingskader, maar deze wet was nog niet in werking ten tijde van het incident en kwam voor dit kind dus te laat. Finland heeft naar het oordeel van het Hof gefaald in zijn positieve verplichting om het recht op respect voor het prive-leven van het kind te beschermen.
  •  Title: The rights and freedoms of others': The ECHR and its peculiar category of conflicts between individual fundamental rights trans
Author:  Bomhoff, J.A.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Abstract:  Conflicts between individual fundamental rights are both pervasive and problematic in the system of the European Convention on Human Rights. This paper is an attempt to illuminate these two dimensions, as well as a plea for taking conflicts of rights more seriously within the Convention legal order. The paper uses a comparative law perspective to demonstrate that the Convention system operates with an exceptionally broad category of ‘conflicts between individual fundamental rights’. The size and location of this category are attributable, at least in part, to the Convention system’s exclusive reliance on a rights-based perspective and the corresponding absence of any ‘division of powers’ jurisdiction for the European Court of Human Rights. This institutional set-up, unique among (quasi)-constitutional courts, coupled with the absence of a ‘thick’ understanding of democracy at the European level, pushes the Court towards framing a large proportion of conflicts between individual and collective interests before it as conflicts between individual fundamental rights. Although current institutional arrangements significantly limit possibilities for the Strasbourg Court to modify its approach, the paper does propose a number of ways in which the ECHR could take conflicts of fundamental rights more seriously. These suggestions focus on situations in which framing a conflict as a clash between individual rights may be suboptimal, suscpicious, or both. The situations identified are those in which (1) individuals are opposed to the ‘rights’ of majorities, (2) individuals are opposed to the ‘rights’ of public officials, and (3) cases in which the distribution of, or access to, public resources is a central issue.
  •  Title: The structure of fundamental rights and the European Court of Human Rights trans
Author:  Gerards, J.H., Senden, H.C.K.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  International Journal of Constitutional Law
Year:  2009
Abstract:  An important aspect of the structure of fundamental rights is the bifurcation between the definition of scope and the review of justifi cation. Although this bifurcation is of great importance both to the division of the burden of proof and to the use of such tools as the doctrine of the margin of appreciation, it appears that the European Court of Human Rights does not always take it seriously. The Court often fails to address issues of definition or merges the two elements into a single test. This paper highlights some of the problematic consequences of the Court’s current approach; in the end, this approach may hamper the effectiveness of the European Convention on Human Rights and limit the protection offered to individual citizens. A more structured approach toward the scope and definition of Convention rights may help to solve or avoid these problems.
  •  Title: Redefining Normative Legal Science: Towards an Argumentative Discipline trans
Author:  Jan Smits
Source:  Universiteit Maastricht
Published in:  F. Coomans, F. Grnfeld & M.T. Kamminga (eds.), Methods of Human Rights Research, Antwerp-Oxford 2009 [Intersentia], pp. 45-58
Year:  2009
Abstract:  Academic legal scholarship increasingly relies on non-normative perspectives. This raises the question what is actually the core of academic legal scholarship and what methodology legal academics should adopt. In this contribution, it is argued that the focus in the present debate should not be on how other disciplines than the law can help us to make the academic study of law more 'scholarly.' Instead, the question should be how the legal approach itself can better match the expectations one has about a truly scholarly discipline of law. To this end, the purpose of normative legal scholarship is redefined.
  •  Title: Discriminatie en kritiek trans
Author:  Cliteur, P.B.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  Strafblad
Year:  2009
Abstract:  Dit artikel behandelt godsdienstkritiek en de strafrechtelijke vervolging van godsdienstkritici.
  •  Title: Developments in the protection of fundamental human rights in criminal process trans
Author:  Chrisje Brants
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review, Volume 5, Issue 2, October 2009
Year:  2009
Description:  Introduction
  •  Title: The protection of fundamental human rights in criminal process trans
Author:  Chrisje Brants & Stijn Franken
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review, Volume 5, Issue 2, October 2009
Year:  2009
Description:  General report
Abstract:  This contribution examines the effect of the uniform standards of human rights in international conventions on criminal process in different countries and identifies factors inherent in national systems that influence the scope of international standards and the way in which they are implemented in a national context. Three overreaching issues influence the reception of international fundamental rights and freedoms in criminal process: constitutional arrangements, legal tradition and culture, and practical circumstances. There is no such thing as the uniform implementation of convention standards; even in Europe where the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the case law of the European Court play a significant role, there is still much diversity in the actual implementation of international norms due to the influence of legal traditions which form a counterforce to the weight of convention obligations. An even greater counterforce is at work in practical circumstances that can undermine international norms, most especially global issues of security, crime control and combating terrorism. Although convention norms are still in place, there is a very real risk that they are circumvented or at least diluted in order to increase effective crime control.
  •  Title: Het gebruik van niet-geratificeerde internationale instrumenten voor de interpretatie van het EVRM trans
Author:  Senden, H.C.K.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  NJCM-Bulletin
Year:  2009
Abstract:  Turkije stelt dat het Hof voor de interpretatie van het EVRM geen gebruik mag maken van internationale instrumenten die niet door de desbetreffende verdragsstaat zijn geratificeerd. De Grote Kamer oordeelt unaniem dat voor de interpretatie van het EVRM van belang kan zijn dat er een consensus zichtbaar is in internationale instrumenten en de praktijk van de verdragstaten. Het is volgens de Grote Kamer niet van belang of de verwerende verdragsstaat alle internationale instrumenten geratificeerd heeft. Het is voldoende als er een trend zichtbaar is.
  •  Title: The Dutch approach to female genital mutilation in view of the ECHR. The time for change has come trans
Author:  Renée Kool
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2010
Abstract:  Worldwide female genital mutilation (FGM) is acknowledged as a serious violation of human rights which needs to be actively combated. However, in Europe France has been the only state to have prosecuted cases of FGM: until 2007 37 cases were tried. As for the Netherlands, (assumingly) FGM is practised on a relatively small, but regular basis. Nevertheless, no cases have been prosecuted; moreover, there have few reports of (alleged) FGM to the Centre for Advising and Reporting on Child Abuse. For the past decade the Dutch Parliament has urged the Dutch government to develop a more robust policy towards FGM, including intervention by the criminal justice system. However, to date the Dutch government has opted for a policy focusing on prevention and medical/social assistance, including a preference for a (non-)statutory reporting code. Recommendations to introduce mandatory reporting, in order to enable the transfer of information needed to enable the criminal justice authorities to intervene, have been turned down. In doing so the Dutch government is neglecting the positive obligations embedded within the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), prescribing that states should offer adequate and effective protection against serious forms of ill-treatment (article 3 ECHR) and/or serious violations of physical integrity (article 8 ECHR), especially to vulnerable persons. Moreover, according to the ECtHR in cases of serious violations, intervention by the criminal justice system is indicated. Thus, retaining a policy which provides no guarantees for the transfer of information needed to provide for effective and adequate protection results in a potential violation of the ECHR by the Dutch government. There is an urgent need for a change of policy. Moreover, as a result of the consistent political pressure by Parliament, the Dutch government has taken a recent interest in the way in which the French handle FGM. However, as legal and cultural conditions differ, copying the French policy is not an option. Nevertheless, there is one step that the Dutch should take: the introduction of mandatory reporting of FGM.
  •  Title: Special procedural measures and the protection of human rights trans
Author:  John A.E. Vervaele
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2009
Description:  General report
Abstract:  The aim of the general report is to conduct a comparative analysis of the national reports in order to trace transformation processes in domestic criminal justice systems, in particular criminal process, as special procedural measures are introduced to deal with terrorism and organised crime, and to map whether this has led countries to depart from their own fundamental rules, procedures, principles and applicable human rights standards. Starting from the premise that the integrated system of criminal law has three dimensions – the protection of individuals (the shield dimension), the provision of instruments of law enforcement (the sword dimension), and of checks and balances/trias politica (the constitutional dimension) – the report provides a comprehensive overview of interrelated transformations, mostly in the pre-trial setting, that have affected all three in three waves of ‘war’ (on drugs, organised crime and terrorism). In many countries, procedural guarantees and principles that protect against the infringement of fair trial rights are considered a burden to the efficiency of serious crime enforcement. These reforms have resulted in a clear expansion of the punitive state and a blurring of classic distinctions, and do not favour the rule of law. The focus on public security and preventive coercive investigation undermines the criminal justice system. With the criminal justice system increasingly used as an instrument to regulate the present and/or the future rather than to punish past behaviour, and a criminal process in which pre-trial investigation is not about truth-finding related to committed crime, but about the construction and de-construction of social dangerousness, the interests of national security may be said to be prevailing over justice and to be threatening due process and the protection of human rights – notwithstanding that general principles of criminal procedure seem to have become more important in the reporting countries, also where organized crime and terrorism are concerned, and are designed to conform with constitutional and human rights standards.
  •  Title: The principle challenges posed by the globalization of criminal justice trans
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Published in:  Utrecht Law Review
Year:  2009
Description:  XVIIIth International Congress of Penal Law - The principle challenges posed by the globalization of criminal justice Istanbul, 20-27 September 2009 - Section III Special procedural measures and the protection of human rights - Resolution
  •  Title: Liberty t. Verenigd Koninkrijk - onderscheppen van telefoon- en e-mailverkeer trans
Author:  Groothuis, M.M.
Source:  Universiteit Leiden
Published in:  NJCM-Bulletin
Year:  2009
  •  Title: he Pilot Judgment Procedure at the European Court of Human Rights: Possibilities and Challenges trans
Author:  Antoine Buyse
Source:  SSRN
Published in:  Nomiko Vima (The Greek Law Journal)
Year:  2009
Abstract:  The fiftieth anniversary of the European Court of Human Rights this year is an occasion for both celebration and apprehension. From a timid beginning the Court has grown into a full-time institution successfully dealing with thousands of cases each year. Its case law is generally perceived to be among the most developed and extensive of all international human rights institutions and most of its judgments are routinely implemented by the state parties to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). However, for over a decade dark clouds have been gathering over Strasbourg. The number of applications has been rising so sharply – partly due to the accession of a large number of new state parties to the ECHR – that the very work and survival of the Court seems to be at risk. It is precisely because of these high numbers that the Court has started to deal creatively with large-scale violations of human rights by way of so-called pilot judgments. This article will assess this new phenomenon which holds the promise of being the most creative tool the Court has developed in its first fifty years of its existence. First, it will look at what pilot judgments are and in which cases the Court has applied the pilot methodology. Secondly, the main reasons for setting up the pilot judgment procedure will be considered. Finally, this article will analyse the challenges the pilot judgment procedure faces, such as its legal basis and the position of applicants in comparable cases.
  •  Title: Poverty as a failure of entitlement : do rights-based approaches make sense? trans
Author:  Gaay Fortman, Bastiaan de
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2010
Abstract:  Can rights-based approaches be conducive to the eradication of poverty?
  •  Title: Poverty as human rights deficit : some implications for the international financial institutions trans
Author:  Gaay Fortman, Bastiaan de
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2003
Abstract:  Following the World Bank’s World Development Report2000/2001: The attack on poverty and the voices of the poor studies on which that document had been based, this chapter explores Human Rights obligations of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). In this connection poverty is approached as part of the “human rights deficit”. International poverty reduction strategies are examined in respect of both economic effectiveness and public justice, with special reference to ‘pro-poor growth’. Six elements of a Rights-based attack on poverty come to the fore. Finally, these are applied to IFIs in particular, with some critical remarks on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
  •  Title: The International Basis for Intercultural Education including Anti-Racist and Human Rights Education trans
Author:  Batelaan, Pieter en Frans Coomans (compilatie en introductie), (PDF), 2nd edition, UNESCO/IBE/Council of Europe, 1999.
  •  Title: Mensenrechten in China - het overdenken waard trans
Author:  Koops, Bert-Jaap, Nieuwland, 11/1, februari 1997, p. 11-15
  •  Title: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and Sexual Orientation trans
Author:  Sumner, I.
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2004
  •  Title: Tien Jaar Maastrichts Centrum voor de Rechten van de Mens 1993-2003 Een ‘proefschriftondervindelijke’ terugblik trans
Author:  Universiteit Maastricht
  •  Title: Criminal Justice and Human Rights trans
Author:  Olásolo, H.
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2011
  •  Title: Women's rights are human rights : The practice of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights trans
Author:  Leeuwen, F.C. van
Source:  Universiteit Utrecht
Year:  2009
Description:  ‘Women’s rights are human rights!’ This notion may seem self evident, as the international system for the promotion and the protection of human rights that was installed under the auspice of the United Nations (UN) builds on the idea of equality in dignity and rights of men and women. Yet, as was convincingly showed by critics of this system, it is not. In 1993 a lobby of women’s rights activists and organisations from all over the world gathered in Vienna at the World Conference on Human Rights to make clear to the 171 states represented there that the international human rights system ignored blatant human rights violations that occur on a daily basis in the lives of women from all over the world. The states represented at the World Conference recognised this deficiency of the international human rights system and called upon the monitoring bodies of the mainstream international human rights treaties to include the status and human rights of women in their deliberations and findings. This study examines whether two of these monitoring bodies: the UN Human Rights Committee (HRC) and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) have taken up this call. It thereby focused specifically on matters that affect women’s physical integrity. The study shows that the HRC and the CESCR make good use of the possibilities within their mandates to address issues that affect women’s physical integrity: they address not only issues like rape and domestic violence, but also for example female genital mutilation, unsafe abortions, and lack of access to contraceptives. It is in this respect interesting to note that the monitoring bodies do not consider abortion to be a violation of any human right, but, on the contrary, recommend states that have general prohibitions on abortion to amend their laws and allow for abortion under certain circumstances. Moreover, the HRC and the CESCR generally formulate obligations for states parties that take into account the gender-specific form, circumstances and consequences of these human rights abuses. But the HRC and the CESCR could and should do more. Only in a few instances do the bodies expressly link issues like rape, female genital mutilation, and trafficking of women to discrimination of women in societies. Hence, the recommendations of the HRC and the CESCR generally do not request the states parties to tackle the root cause of human rights abuses and constraints: the subordinate position of women in society. Further action is required to overcome this deficit. In this, NGOs and academics also have an important role to play, as they should make the bodies aware of the discriminatory background and nature of specific situations and issues and could present them with ideas on how best to tackle these underlying causes. What is clear is that the request of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights is not a short-term assignment for the monitoring bodies, but rather is a process that will be ongoing for as long as gender inequality exists. The commitment of not only UN agencies, but also academics, and NGOs is required to transform the international system so as to ensure that it fully accommodates and responds to human rights abuses and constraints that are typical of women’s lives, now and in the future.